L'option indienne

La visite que va prochainement effectuer le président Chirac en Inde pour conclure la vente de 6 sous-marins d'attaque confirme l'émergence de ce pays en tant que puissance économique et politique. Les Etats-Unis et l'Union européenne recherchent à intervalles réguliers à établir un "partenariat stratégique" avec la Chine, mais c'est avec la démocratie indienne qu'il serait souhaitable et réaliste.

Avec son président musulman, son Premier ministre sikh, son ministre des Affaires étrangères hindou et le président du parti au pouvoir - le parti du Congrès - un chrétien né à l'étranger, la réussite de l'Inde est tout aussi remarquable que le boom économique chinois impulsé depuis 20 ans par le parti communiste chinois. Depuis 1991, à l'apparition de la crise de la balance des payements, l'Inde s'est affranchie de son héritage socialiste et a atteint un taux de croissance de 7,5% de son PIB, à peine moins que la Chine. L'Inde a ouvert son économie sur le monde et a commencé à privatiser beaucoup de ses entreprises nationalisées (mais à un rythme souvent trop lent).

Le développement du secteur de la haute technologie joue un rôle moteur dans cette direction et il prouve que l'Inde a plus à gagner qu'à perdre en s'inscrivant dans le processus de mondialisation. Peut-être pour la première fois depuis l'invention du zéro, l'Inde a un produit vedette à vendre, et cette fois elle peut espérer en garder le bénéfice pour elle-même. Enfin, dans le monde entier, on s'arrache les cerveaux indiens.

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