Le compte à rebours climatique

LONDRES – Il semble être devenu rituel que les négociations sur le climat des Nations Unies soient sur le point de s'effondrer, avant de parvenir à un compromis intense et controversé après la date limite. Mais la conclusion des pourparlers tortueux de cette année à Doha, où près de 200 pays ont convenu de prolonger le protocole de Kyoto, n'a fait que préparer le terrain de négociations plus spectaculaires en 2015, où un nouvel accord mondial doit être conclu.

L'accord qui vient d'être conclu établit un pont entre l’ancien régime climatique, et un nouveau régime non encore défini. En prolongeant le Protocole de Kyoto, qui limite les émissions de gaz à effet de serre de certains pays développés pendant huit ans de plus, l'accord de Doha préserve le cadre essentiel du Droit international et maintient les règles d'évaluation durement gagnées pour les quotas d'émission et le commerce entre les pays.

Mais l'accord confirme également qu'en 2020 le traité de Kyoto sera remplacé par un nouveau traité, qui rejettera la distinction binaire désuète entre pays « développés » et pays « en voie de développement ». Le nouvel arrangement exigera un engagement de tous les pays, proportionné à leur niveau de développement.

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