Le duo sino-américain et le réchauffement climatique

PEKIN – En décembre auront lieu à Copenhague des négociations censées aboutir à la signature d'un nouveau traité pour succéder au protocole de Kyoto. Mais sans une collaboration étroite entre les USA et la Chine, elles pourraient échouer et l'on ne parviendra probablement pas à prendre en temps voulu des mesures efficaces contre le réchauffement climatique. Les discussions en cours entre les USA et la Chine sur ce thème peuvent déboucher sur deux scénarios très différents, l'un décourageant, l'autre porteur d'espoir.

Dans le premier cas, les délégations des deux pays campent sur des positions opposées dont elles ne bougent pas et les négociations aboutissent à une impasse. Le refus des pays développés (notamment les USA) de reconnaître leur responsabilité historique dans les émissions de gaz à effet de serre constitue un point d'achoppement majeur, car leurs émissions surpassent de beaucoup celles des pays en développement.

Dans le second cas, les milliards de dollars investis dans l'écologie suscitent une course mondiale à qui va prendre la tête dans les nouvelles technologies vertes et dans leur déploiement. Dans ce domaine, les USA donnent maintenant la priorité à six secteurs clés : le bâtiment, les batteries électriques, le solaire, la capture et le stockage du carbone (CAS), les réseaux de distribution électrique intelligents et les véhicules électriques (EV).

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