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Wie die Ungleichheit eine politische Stimme gefunden hat

MAILAND – Es hat lange gedauert, bis sich die steigende Ungleichheit auf die Politik ausgewirkt hat, so wie sie es dann in den letzten Jahren plötzlich getan hat. Nun ist sie ein zentrales Thema, und die nationalen wirtschaftlichen Prioritäten werden sich erheblich ändern müssen, um gerechtere, breitere Schichten einbeziehende Volkswirtschaften und Gesellschaften hervorzubringen. Tun sie das nicht, könnten sich die Menschen für explosive Alternativen zu ihren aktuellen Regierungen  entscheiden – solchen wie den populistischen Bewegungen, die derzeit viele Länder erfasst haben.

Führende Politiker sprechen häufig davon, dass Wachstumsmuster die Vorteile des Wachstums ungerecht verteilen, aber tun dann relativ wenig dagegen, wenn sie an der Macht sind. Wenn Länder den Weg hin zu breite Schichten ausschließenden Wachstumsmustern einschlagen, führt dies gewöhnlich zur Missachtung von Fachkompetenz, zur Desillusionierung mit dem politischen System und gemeinsamen kulturellen Werten und zu einer noch größeren gesellschaftlichen Fragmentierung und Polarisierung.

Es ist natürlich nichts Neues, dass die Wichtigkeit der Art und Weise, wie der wirtschaftliche Nutzen verteilt wird, anerkannt wird. In den Entwicklungsländern haben wirtschaftliche Ausgrenzung und extreme Ungleichheit langfristige Verlaufsmuster starken Wachstums schon immer behindert. In einem derartigen Umfeld ist eine wachstumsfreundliche Politik politische nicht dauerhaft fortführbar und wird letztlich durch politische Verwerfungen, gesellschaftliche Unruhen und sogar Gewalt gestört.

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