Zeman and Fico Samuel Kubani/Stringer

Las trampas del populismo autoritario

LONDRES – El año 2016 mostró que la durabilidad de la democracia liberal ya no puede darse por sentada, ni siquiera en Occidente. De hecho, el análisis que hace el politólogo Yascha Mounk (de la Universidad de Harvard) de los datos de la Encuesta Mundial de Valores muestra que en muchos países occidentales, la confianza de la opinión pública en la democracia viene cayendo hace bastante tiempo.

¿Cómo se explica esta tendencia? Los cimbronazos políticos de 2016 hacen pensar que muchas personas están frustradas por la inacción de las democracias y creen que no se están abordando con la decisión necesaria cuestiones como el estancamiento salarial, el desempleo, la desigualdad, la inmigración y el terrorismo. Los sistemas políticos de los países democráticos parecen sumidos en un estado de sopor permanente, lo que impulsa a los votantes a apoyar a líderes fuertes, que prometen terminar con la parálisis política y barrer toda resistencia burocrática a la implementación de nuevas políticas audaces.

Estos líderes (que aseguran ser los únicos capaces de resolver los problemas de sus países) suelen proceder del mundo corporativo. Mucha gente considera que un ejecutivo exitoso es alguien capaz de cumplir objetivos bien definidos, de modo que un hombre de negocios podrá resolver problemas sociales que eludirán a un político.

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