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俄罗斯的新意识形态统治

莫斯科—“普京主义”一直是西方的一个热门话题,这个词用来描述俄罗斯总统普京的政策和行为,一般总是包含着恐怖和失望的含义。但是,在俄罗斯执政精英中间,普京主义被视为复杂而有吸引力的意识形态——并且可以流芳后世。

以普京命名的意识形态与其说是他自己头脑的产物,不如说出自他的紧密助手弗拉迪斯拉夫·苏尔科夫(Vladislav Surkov)。作为克里姆林宫首席“思想家”,苏尔科夫可以说是当代拉扎尔·卡迦诺维奇(Lazar Kaganotich)。卡迦诺维奇是斯大林最紧密的助手之一,也是用更“进步”的斯大林主义取代列宁主义作为苏联意识形态基础的主要推手。

苏尔科夫最近将普京主义描述为 “有用的日常意识形态,包括所有社会创新和积极的矛盾。”在他看来,俄罗斯人不需要西式民主,因为普京已经创造了一套比俄罗斯人民自己还要了解自己的制度——包括他们的需求、愿望和目标。

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