Les droits de l'homme numérique

ABOU DABI – Nous avons créé un monde en ligne dont l'immensité dépasse notre compréhension. Pour vous faire une idée de son ampleur, imaginez ceci : en 2012, le nouveau système d'adresses Internet IPv6, a créé plus de 340 trillions de trillions de trillions (3,4 x 1038) d'adresses, soit environ 4,8 x 1028 adresses pour chaque personne sur terre. Cela devrait suffire à desservir les cinq milliards d'appareils qui se connectent actuellement à Internet et les 22 milliards d'appareils prévus pour 2020.

La partie la plus difficile de l'explosion de la connectivité n'est pas de créer de la capacité, mais la façon dont elle doit être gérée. Nous devons répondre à de graves questions sur notre mode de vie. Tout le monde doit-il être connecté en permanence à tout ? Qui détient quelles données, comment les informations doivent-elles être rendues publiques ? Est-il possible et souhaitable de réglementer sur l'utilisation des données ? Si oui, comment ? Et quel rôle le gouvernement, les entreprises et les utilisateurs ordinaires d'Internet vont-ils jouer dans la résolution de ces problèmes ?

Ces questions ne peuvent plus être ignorées. Alors que le monde virtuel se développe, il en va de même des abus de confiance et du détournement de données personnelles. La surveillance a fait grandir le malaise de l'opinion publique, voire la paranoïa, vis-à-vis des agences gouvernementales. Les entreprises privées qui négocient les données personnelles ont incité le lancement d'un mouvement pour « récupérer sa vie privée ». Comme l'a fait remarquer un représentant à un récent débat du Forum Economique Mondial : « Plus nous nous connectons, plus nous renonçons à notre vie privée. »

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