Alistair Berg/Getty Images

崩溃中的养老金体系

发自伦敦——如果发达国家能遵照理性行事,并且愿意维护那些了解自身税收是如何花费的选民的利益,就一定将会把合资格领取社会养老金的退休年龄设定在70岁以上。然而大多数发达国家的退休年龄依然低于这一数值,尽管已经出台了一些措施,但真正达标还需数十年。与此同时,西方福利国家将仍然陷于财政无力,经济病态和政治紧张的局面。

人口老龄化的影响之巨,堪与气候变化比肩,只是前者更关乎社会和经济而已:我们都知道这是一个必须解决的问题,但宁愿留给下一代来解决。考虑到当前的经济和政治困局,这种拖延症式的冲动是可以理解的;可这一旦涉及公共养老金,拖延所付出的代价就会极高——甚至比全球变暖的后果更为严重。

在1970年代,法国男性劳动者的平均实际退休年龄为67岁,与当时的男性预期寿命大致相同。而如今法国男性的预期寿命已近83岁,但实际退休年龄却为60岁低一点(虽说法定退休年龄是65岁,但实际上公共养老金可以更早地被提取)。

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