Xi Jinping belt and road Mark Schiefelbein/Pool/Getty Images

Revoir l’ordre mondial

MADRID – Comme il n’a pas échappé à de nombreux observateurs, la Pax Americana, qui avait prévalu ces dernières décennies, est en fin de vie. Après cent cinquante jours d’« Amérique d’abord » – ou plus prosaïquement d’« Amérique toute seule » – il semble qu’on ne puisse plus considérer comme allant de soi le traditionnel rôle stabilisateur des États-Unis, désormais présidés par Donald Trump. Tandis que s’étiole sur la scène internationale leur prééminence – et avec elle le statut de l’Amérique comme « nation indispensable » au monde –, d’autre États et même des acteurs non-étatiques gagnent en influence. Quelles en sont donc les conséquences pour ce que nous appelons l’« ordre libéral international » ?

Cette multipolarité effervescente n’est pas nécessairement en contradiction avec un système global ouvert dont tous puissent bénéficier. Les puissances mondiales comme la Chine disposent des outils qui leur permettent d’agir en partenaires responsables. Et l’on peut encore compter sur l’Union européenne, qui semble retrouver confiance en elle, pour jouer un rôle constructif.

Dans la théorie des relations internationales, l’« internationalisme libéral » se caractérise par la promotion de l’ouverture et de l’ordre, consacrés par les organisations internationales. À la fin de la Seconde Guerre mondiale, ces principes fournirent la base idéologique de traités comme l’Accord général sur les tarifs douaniers et le commerce (AGETAC), qui plus tard allait devenir l’Organisation mondiale du commerce (OMC).

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