Die Ökonomie nachhaltiger Entwicklung

PARIS – Zwei Denkschulen beherrschen heute tendenziell die ökonomischen Debatten. Den  Ökonomen des freien Marktes zufolge sollte der Staat die Steuern senken, Regulierungen abschwächen, Arbeitsgesetze reformieren und dann den Weg freimachen, damit die Verbraucher konsumieren und die Hersteller Arbeitsplätze schaffen können. Geht es nach der keynesianischen Ökonomie sollte der Staat durch quantitative Lockerung und Konjunkturbelebungsprogramme die Gesamtnachfrage  ankurbeln. Zu guten Ergebnissen führt allerdings keiner dieser Ansätze. Wir benötigen vielmehr eine neue Ökonomie nachhaltiger Entwicklung, im Rahmen derer der Staat neue Arten von Investitionen fördert.

Die Ökonomie des freien Marktes führt zu großartigen Resultaten für die Reichen, für alle anderen sind die Folgen jedoch ziemlich trist. In den Vereinigten Staaten und Teilen Europas kürzen die Regierungen ihre Sozialausgaben sowie die Mittel für Arbeitsplatzschaffung, Infrastrukturinvestitionen und Ausbildung, weil es für die reichen Bosse, die den Politikern die Wahlkämpfe finanzieren, überaus gut läuft, auch wenn die Gesellschaften rund um sie zerbröckeln.

Aber auch die keynesianischen Lösungen – lockere Geldpolitik und hohe Haushaltsdefizite – bleiben weit hinter den versprochenen Ergebnissen zurück. Nach der Finanzkrise des Jahres 2008 versuchten es viele Staaten mit Konjunkturprogrammen. Schließlich geben die meisten Politiker gerne Geld aus, das sie nicht haben. Doch der kurzfristige Aufschwung war in zweierlei Hinsicht ein Fehlschlag.

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