Man standing at lake in mountains.

البرجماتية في التعامل مع السياسة المناخية

برلين ــ تشهد الجهود الدولية الرامية إلى التوصل إلى اتفاق للتخفيف من حِدة تغير المناخ تحولاً جوهريا. فالآن، يحل تدريجياً محل النهج القديم، الذي أديرت به الجهود من أعلى إلى أسفل منذ عام 1992، نموذج جديد يتجه من أسفل إلى أعلى. وبدلاً من محاولة صياغة اتفاق يقوم على فرض قيود ملزمة قانوناً على الانبعاثات الغازية المسببة للانحباس الحراري الكوكبي، يعتمد النهج الجديد على التزامات طوعية من قِبَل الدول فرادى لكبح جماح مساهماتها في تغير المناخ.

وهذا من ناحية يُعَد اعترافاً بالفشل؛ فمثل هذا النهج من غير المرجح أن ينجح في الحد من ارتفاع درجات الحرارة الكوكبية بحيث لا يتجاوز درجتين مئويتين، وهو الهدف الذي حددته الأمم المتحدة في عام 2010. ولكن نظراً لوتيرة التقدم البطيئة حتى الآن، فإن الخطوات البرجماتية الصغيرة (التي تتسم بالحس العملي الواقعي) من قِبَل البلدان فرادى ربما تكون أكثر إنتاجية إلى حد كبير من المحاولات الرامية إلى عقد صفقة كبرى تظل إلى الأبد بعيدة عن المنال.

لقد حقق المفاوضون الدوليون تقدماً كبيراً على مدار السنوات الخمس الماضية، ولكنهم لا زالوا بعيدين عن التوصل إلى اتفاق قادر على تحقيق هدف الدرجتين المئويتين. ونتيجة لهذا، قرر الدبلوماسيون إعادة تقويم طموحاتهم، خشية أن تؤدي محاولة أخرى فاشلة للتوصل إلى اتفاق عالمي إلى إفقاد العملية التفاوضية برمتها مصداقيتها ونفوذها.

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