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L'insécurité du monde arabe dans le domaine de l'eau

BERLIN – Le monde arabe a les ressources les plus rares en eau. La région abrite la plupart des États ou territoires du monde les plus pauvres en termes de ressources en eau, notamment Bahreïn, Djibouti, Gaza, la Jordanie, le Koweït, la Libye, le Qatar, l'Arabie Saoudite et les Émirats Arabes Unis. Cette pénurie, par une explosion démographique, par l'épuisement et la dégradation des écosystèmes naturels et par un mécontentement populaire,  assombrit l'avenir de ces pays.

Le monde arabe ne manque pas défis à relever. Étant donné que de nombreux États arabes sont des constructions modernes inventées par les puissances coloniales en partance et qui à ce titre sont dépourvues d'identités historiques cohésives, leurs structures étatiques manquent souvent de solides fondations. Si l'on prend en compte les pressions internes et externes (en particulier la flambée de l'islamisme, les guerres civiles et la migration massive hors des zones de conflit), l'avenir de plusieurs pays arabes semble incertain.

Quelques-uns d'entre eux semblent reconnaître que la rareté de l'eau contribue à ce cycle de violence. Un des principaux déclencheurs des soulèvements du Printemps arabe (la hausse des prix des denrées alimentaires), a été directement lié à l'aggravation de la crise de l'eau dans la région. L'eau est également à l'origine de tensions entre pays. L'Arabie Saoudite et la Jordanie, par exemple, sont engagées dans une course silencieuse pour pomper le gisement aquifère qu'elles partagent à al-Disi.

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