Ecologizar el crecimiento

Cuando los dirigentes del mundo se reunieron en la Cumbre del Milenio hace cuatro años, acordaron un conjunto de metas encaminadas a reducir la pobreza mundial a la mitad en 2015. También fijaron metas para el medio ambiente, porque entendieron su carácter fundamental para el crecimiento económico, el desarrollo humano y la estabilidad del planeta a largo plazo. El problema es que hoy, cuando faltan diez años para la fecha en que se deberán haber alcanzado las metas de 2015, los avances en materia de medio ambiente son alarmantemente lentos. Mucho más es posible.

La eliminación progresiva de las substancias que agotan la capa de ozono mediante el Protocolo de Montreal, por ejemplo, demuestra lo que se puede hacer cuando la comunidad internacional actúa conjuntamente. Se calcula que, gracias a dicho protocolo, se evitarán hasta 20 millones de casos de cáncer de piel y 130 millones de cataratas oculares.

Esa clase de éxito debe alentarnos. Pero ahora es necesario que nuestra acción esté a la altura del desafío. Nuestro mundo está no sólo desequilibrado, sino también en peligro. La desforestación va en aumento, con casi 100 millones de hectáreas perdidas tan sólo en el ultimo decenio... en gran parte porque millones de agricultores pobres de África y América Latina se ven obligados a cortar árboles, al no tener acceso a la tierra o a las fuentes energéticas.

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