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Un populista antipopulista en Francia

VARSOVIA – Demócratas de todo tipo han celebrado el hecho de que el próximo presidente de Francia será el centrista proeuropeo Emmanuel Macron, y no la ultraderechista del Frente Nacional Marine Le Pen. Pero aunque la victoria de Macron es buena noticia, no augura la derrota del populismo en Europa. Por el contrario, Macron representa una especie de “populismo esclarecido”, que conlleva sus propios problemas.

La candidatura de Macron, como la de Le Pen, fue un rechazo a los partidos políticos tradicionales de Francia. Macron convenció a los votantes con su promesa de combinación a la escandinava de liberalismo económico y estado de bienestar flexible. Pero quizá sea hora de admitir que Escandinavia es Escandinavia, y que los esquemas que funcionan allí tal vez no se puedan replicar en otras partes.

Como sea, puede que el populismo de Macron no sea del todo malo en lo inmediato. Es posible que hoy (en Francia y en otros países) sólo un populista pueda derrotar a un populista. Si es así, el populismo esclarecido de Macron es sin duda preferible al populismo nacionalista que propone Le Pen. La cuestión es si la versión esclarecida puede ayudar a alejar los sistemas políticos del populismo como tal, y llevarlos hacia la búsqueda de soluciones reales para los problemas de sus países.

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