Las Vegas shooting David Becker/Stringer

枪击犯思维剖析

伦敦—这个周末,史蒂芬·帕多克(Stephen Paddock)在内华达州拉斯维加斯的一家饭店居高临下朝一个乡村音乐节开火,至少杀害了59人,伤及500多人。帕多克今年64岁,曾经是一名会计师,没有犯罪记录,最后他被发现在饭店房间中,已经死亡,身边有23支枪,其中包括十多支突击武器。随后警察又在帕多克家中找到了另外19支枪、炸弹和数千发子弹。但当局仍未找到他的作案动机。

随后几天,更多关于帕多克心理和目标的细节有可能会揭露。但所谓的“独狼”枪击犯——与任何运动和意识形态都没有什么关系的犯罪个体——并非新现象,这些案件为枪击犯的动机和思维过程提供了重要线索。

大部分枪击犯都不会在他们自己造成的袭击案中活下来;他们要么自杀,要么让警察击毙。但活下来的那些枪击犯,表现出一些共同特征,自恋型人格障碍和偏执型精神分裂是最常见的两个诊断。安德斯·布雷维克(Anders Breivik)就是如此,这位挪威极右翼恐怖分子在2011年引爆汽车炸弹杀死了八人,然后在一家青少年夏令营射杀69名营员。他仍然在挪威服刑。

如果研究一下袭击前的行为,会强化这一观点。在《威利枪击犯心理学手册》(The Wiley Handbook of the Psychology of Mass Shootings)中,明尼苏达惩治局(Department of Corrections)研究和评估主管格兰特·杜威(Grant Duwe)考察了1915年至2013年间的160起在美国发生的枪击案。

杜威发现,60%的罪犯在作案前辈诊断为精神障碍或表现出严重精神异常的迹象。大约三分之一的罪犯与精神科专业人士有联系,他们最常见的诊断是偏执型精神分裂症。第二常见的诊断是抑郁症。

但是,由于大部分这些精神障碍患者都对公众无害,因此这些诊断不是全部原因。杜威认为,区别也许部分源自一种强烈的被迫害感——以及强烈的复仇渴望。

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这一观点得到了澳大利亚精神科法医保罗·穆伦(Paul Mullen)的证实。基于对他经手的对五名杀人狂的详细调查,穆伦认为这些杀手难以协调自视甚高和无法胜任工作或关系之间的矛盾。他们因此认定,唯一的解释是其他人蓄意陷害他们。

事实上,穆伦的研究揭示了杀人狂之路非常老套。所有穆伦的研究对象在孩提时代都遭到过恐吓或被社会排斥。他们都多疑而死板,而这些特质加深了他们的孤立。他们总是将他们的问题归咎于其他人,认为社会拒绝他们;他们没能认识到是他们自己乏善可陈或自我中心。

穆伦的研究对象对任何被他们视为拒绝接受他们的群体或社会的一部分的人,都持有最大的仇恨。他们深陷过去的羞辱中无法自拔,这一习性助长了仇恨,最终形成复仇幻想,诱使他们用大规模杀戮来实现恶名,伤害那些被视为伤害过他们的人——即使这意味着他们自己也受到“欢迎死亡”(welcome death)。

因此,枪击犯在选择受害者时常常有一套扭曲的逻辑。在校园枪击案中,如1999年科伦拜恩高中(Columbine High School)大屠杀,这一逻辑显而易见:惩罚在社交上排斥罪犯的人。类似地,职场暴力常常由解雇或裁员引发。但即使在目标貌似随机的案件中,这一逻辑最终也会浮现,即使是惩罚整个社区或社会的案子也不例外。

帕多克案显然还有很多未解之谜。首先是他为什么要选择这个音乐会作为袭击对象。但他的故事的轮廓已经开始显现。一位邻居说,“奇怪的”帕多克“不与人来往”;和他住隔壁“就像挨着空气住”,这强化了独来独往叙事。另据披露,2012年帕多克对一家拉斯维加斯饭店提起诉讼,认为饭店的疏忽导致他摔跤;诉讼可能是愤慨和偏执的标志。

杜威指出,和流行的信念相反,这些抢手不会“突然着魔”。尽管大约三分之二的公共场合枪击犯在作案前夕遭到过创伤事件——通常是被炒或被甩——但大部分会花几周乃至几年时间思考和准备复仇。在帕多克案中,这一悄然计划阶段可以解释在他家中和饭店房间找到的武器,他在作案前几天租用了它们。

杀戮过后,大部分公共场合枪击犯要么直接自杀,要么诱使警察把自己杀掉。这一比例要比总体自杀率高十倍。杜威问,这是否揭示出这些罪犯经历着巨大的精神折磨?也许他们认为他们已经不堪忍受生活的痛苦;一旦他们“清算了”他们认为造成这一痛苦的侮辱,他们也没有继续存活在世上的理由。

穆伦认为,这种特殊自杀的脚本在现代文化中早已根深蒂固,并且在继续吸引着甘之如饴的领衔主演。如果我们无法用我们从过去的经验学到的知识来防止他们登上舞台,他们将继续把观众当作目标。

http://prosyn.org/q41PmUj/zh;

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