El trabajo en la era de los robots

DAVOS – Los temores a las repercusiones de la tecnología en el mercado laboral no son nada nuevo. A comienzos del siglo XIX, un grupo de trabajadores textiles ingleses conocidos como luditas se preocuparon por que tecnologías nuevas como el telar mecánico y la máquina de hilar los privarían de sus puestos de trabajo. Protestaron destruyendo las máquinas.

Actualmente, la ansiedad por que las nuevas tecnologías destruyan millones de puestos de trabajo es mayor que nunca. En medio de una importante crisis del empleo, la tecnología sigue reduciendo la mano de obra necesaria para la producción en masa, mientras que la automatización de tareas administrativas y contabilidad rutinarias está vaciando también ese sector del mercado laboral. La ciencia de la robótica está revolucionando la manufactura; todos los años, se ponen en marcha 200.000 robots industriales más. En 2015, se espera que el total alcance los 1,5 millones. Uno de los imperativos que caracterizarán nuestra era será el de adaptar el mercado laboral a un mundo de lugares de trabajo cada vez más automatizados.

Sin embargo, ningún país puede permitirse el lujo de desatender esa transformación. A escala mundial, unos 200 millones de personas están desempleados, 27 millones más que en 2008. Existe la necesidad imperiosa de adelantarse a los cambios tecnológicos por venir y ofrecer a la mano de obra mundial la instrucción y las aptitudes necesarias para participar en el mercado laboral mundial.

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