机器人时代的劳动力

达沃斯—关于技术对劳动力市场的影响的担忧不是什么新鲜事。十九世纪初,一群被称为卢德派(Luddites)的英格兰纺织工人动力织机和精纺机等技术会夺走他们的饭碗。他们以砸毁机器的方式表示反对。

如今,对新技术可能摧毁数百万工作岗位的焦虑不亚于十九世纪初。在大规模就业危机期间,技术依然在减少大规模生产所需要的劳动力数量,与此同时,常规法律和会计工作的自动化也在各自行业挤出就业岗位。机器人科学正在掀起制造革命;每一年,都有200 000个新增工业机器人投入使用。2015年,工业机器人总数预计将突破150万。调整劳动力市场以适应日益自动化的工作场所将是现时代的一个关键挑战。

但没有一个国家可以忽视这一转变。全球而言,约有2亿人没有工作,2008年以来增加了2 700万。预测未来技术变革、为全球劳动力大军提供参与现代劳动力市场所需要的教育和技能是一个关键需要。

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