Anadolu Agency | getty images

根除脊髓灰质炎的政治学

剑桥—几年前,全球根除脊髓灰质炎运动似乎陷入了停滞。在进行了几十年的根除努力后,脊髓灰质炎病毒仍然在巴基斯坦、阿富汗和尼日利亚肆虐。接着,在2013年和2014年,它被发现重新出现在此前已经消灭了脊髓灰质炎的七个非洲和中东国家,世界卫生组织因此宣布该疾病的复现是“值得国际关注的公共卫生紧急情况”。

尽管出现了遮掩的反复,当今世界比以往任何时候都更加接近于根除脊髓灰质炎。2015年只有74例新病例——比前一年减少80%,也是历史上最低的年度数字。并且所有病例都集中在两个国家,54例在巴基斯坦,20例在阿富汗。此外,距离该病毒上一次在非洲被检测到已经过去了十八个月。

这一令人瞩目的转机背后的原因很具有说明性,它告诉了我们公共卫生工作者面临着怎样的挑战,克服这些挑战的最佳方法呢又在哪里。

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