Immigrants integration Sean Gallup/Getty Images

O benefício da Migração

OXFORD/SHANGHAI – Muitos dos debates actualmente em curso em todo o mundo sobre imigração reflectem a suposição de que a admissão e migrantes é um acto de generosidade, que por sinal é dispendioso. Mas, longe de constituir um peso económico, os imigrantes representam uma importante oportunidade económica para os países de destino. Os países que adoptam uma abordagem criteriosa e de longo prazo relativamente à imigração podem obter benefícios substanciais e tangíveis.

Um estudo novo levado a cabo pelo McKinsey Global Institute (MGI) mostra que os migrantes transfronteiriços — mais de 90% dos quais se deslocaram por razões económicas — representam apenas 3,4% da população mundial; no entanto a sua contribuição ascende a quase 10% do PIB mundial. Dado que cerca de dois terços destes migrantes residem em países desenvolvidos, onde a produtividade tende a ser mais elevada, o impacto do seu trabalho está a ser maximizado, o que traz benefícios económicos de longo alcance. Os migrantes de todos os níveis de competências contribuem para o referido efeito.

Os migrantes adicionaram cerca 6,7 biliões de dólares ao PIB mundial em 2015 — cerca de 3 biliões dólares acima do que teriam produzido se tivessem permanecido no seu país de origem. Tendo em conta os fluxos dos países em desenvolvimento para os países desenvolvidos geram os maiores aumentos de produtividade, estes destinos representam mais de 90% da contribuição total dos migrantes para o PIB mundial. O MGI estima que, em 2015, os imigrantes tenham gerado cerca de 2 biliões de dólares nos EUA, 550 mil milhões de dólares na Alemanha, 390 mil milhões de dólares no Reino Unido, 330 mil milhões de dólares na Austrália e 320 mil milhões de dólares no Canadá.

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