Immigrants integration Sean Gallup/Getty Images

Les migrants: du pain béni pour les pays d'accueil

OXFORD/SHANGHAI – Une grande partie des débats sur l'immigration qui font rage actuellement dans le monde entier reflètent l'hypothèse fallacieuse selon laquelle l'accueil des migrants est un acte de générosité - et un acte coûteux, par-dessus le marché. Pourtant, loin d'être un fardeau économique, les immigrants représentent une opportunité économique importante pour les pays de destination. Les pays qui adoptent une approche réfléchie et à long terme sur l'immigration peuvent en tirer d'importants avantages tangibles.

Une nouvelle étude du McKinsey Global Institute (MGI) montre que les migrants transfrontaliers (plus de 90 % de ceux qui ont déménagé pour des raisons économiques), ne représentent que 3,4 % de la population mondiale, mais près de 10 % du PIB mondial. Parce que près des deux tiers de ces migrants vivent dans les pays développés, où la productivité a tendance à être plus forte, ils maximisent l'impact de leur travail, par des avantages économiques considérables. Des migrants de tous niveaux de qualification contribuent à cet effet.

Les migrants ont ajouté environ 6,7 billions de dollars au PIB mondial en 2015 (soit 3 billions de dollars de plus que ce qu'ils auraient produit s'ils étaient restés dans leur pays d'origine. Parce que les flux depuis les pays en développement vers les pays développés génèrent la plus forte augmentation de la productivité, ces destinations représentent plus de 90 % de la contribution totale des migrants au PIB mondial. MGI estime qu'en 2015, les migrants ont généré près de 2 billions de dollars aux États-Unis, 550 milliards de dollars en Allemagne, 390 milliards de dollars au Royaume-Uni, 330 milliards de dollars en Australie et 320 milliards de dollars au Canada.

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