Immigrants integration Sean Gallup/Getty Images

移民的好处

牛津/上海—如今在全世界各地兴起的移民争论反映了一个错误的假设:允许移民进入属于慷慨的施与——并且是代价昂贵的慷慨施与。但是,移民绝不是经济负担,反而使移民目的国的一个重要的经济机遇。对移民采取深思熟虑的长期方针的国家能够获得巨大的有形的价值。

麦肯锡全球研究所(MGI)的新研究表明,跨境移民——其中90%以上是因为经济原因——只占世界人口的3.4%,但贡献了将近10%的全球GDP。这些移民中有三分之二生活在发达国家,即生产率往往是最高的地区,因此他们的工作影响能得到最大化,形成影响深远的经济收益。各个技能层次的移民都能产生这一效应。

2015年,移民为全球GDP增加了大约6.7万亿美元——预计比让他们留在来源国的情形多出3万亿美元。从发展中国家向发达国家的移民形成最大的生产率增幅,因此这些目的国收获了移民对全球GDP总贡献的90%。MGI估算,2015年移民为美国创造了2万亿美元,德国5,500亿美元,英国3,900亿美元,澳大利亚3,300亿美元,加拿大3,200亿美元。

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