Comment le cours du dollar affecte-t-il le prix du pétrole ?

Le prix élevé du pétrole suscite aujourd’hui nombre de commentaires angoissés à travers le monde. Pourtant, si les hommes politiques souhaitent faire baisser le prix du pétrole, ils devraient auparavant promouvoir des politiques visant à renforcer le dollar.

Fixer le prix du pétrole en une seule monnaie a des implications bien plus vastes que ce que l’on pourrait croire. Par exemple, certains pays producteurs de pétrole demandent à leurs clients de payer en euros, mais cela ne veut pas dire que le prix est en euros. Et même si les prix en dollars devaient passer en euros, les conséquences du prix fixé en une seule monnaie seraient les mêmes pour le marché du pétrole.   

Bien que les pays exportateurs de pétrole encaissent des revenus en dollars (ou en euros), ils utilisent d’autres monnaies pour importer des biens et des services. Toute modification du taux de change du dollar affecte le pouvoir d’achat de ces pays et donc leur revenu réel. 

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