La speranza risiede nelle risorse

WASHINGTON, DC – Quando un Paese quadruplica il proprio gettito fiscale in un anno, è bene prenderne nota. È questa la portata dell’incremento tributario raggiunto dal Ghana dal 2010 al 2011, dovuto agli introiti delle attività estrattive.

Il Ghana non è il solo. Le crescenti entrate tributarie dei Paesi in via di sviluppo con abbondanti risorse riflettono non solo il rialzo dei prezzi delle commodity, ma anche le regole internazionali che hanno migliorato la trasparenza finanziaria nel settore petrolifero, del gas e minerario, riducendo in modo significativo le occasioni di evasione fiscale. Tali regole hanno altresì avuto priorità nel programma del recente Summit G-8 in Irlanda del Nord. È importante apprezzare questi sforzi, ma bisogna chiedere un passo in più.

I mercati internazionali delle commodity sono sotto stress. Dal 2000 i prezzi registrano una traiettoria al rialzo, con uno slancio della domanda interrotta solo brevemente dalla crisi finanziaria del 2008. Una conseguenza apparente è l’estrema volatilità dei prezzi. Contemporaneamente, gli incentivi a partecipare ai mercati illegali stanno diventando più forti: circa il 20% del mercato mondiale di coltan (un metallo prezioso utilizzato per la telefonia mobile) viene negoziato illegalmente.

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