cyber warfare bae systems The Washington Post

Een normatieve aanpak van het voorkomen van cyberoorlogen

CAMBRIDGE – Een reeks gebeurtenissen in de afgelopen jaren – waaronder de cyber-interventies van Rusland om de Amerikaanse presidentsverkiezingen van 2016 in het voordeel van Trump te doen uitvallen, de anonieme cyber-aanvallen die het Oekraïense elektriciteitsnet in 2015 ontwrichtten, en het “Stuxnet”-virus dat duizend Iraanse ultra-centrifuges vernietigde – heeft tot toenemende zorgen geleid over een mogelijk conflict in cyberspace. Op de Münchense veiligheidsconferentie van afgelopen maand heeft de Nederlandse minister van Buitenlandse Zaken Bert Koenders de vorming van een nieuwe, niet-gouvernementele Global Commission on the Stability of Cyberspace aangekondigd om de UN Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) aan te vullen.

De rapporten van de GGE van 2010, 2013 en 2015 hebben geholpen de onderhandelingsagenda voor de cyberveiligheid vast te stellen, en in het meest recente rapport werd een reeks normen opgesomd die zijn gesteund door de Algemene Vergadering van de Verenigde Naties. Maar ondanks dit initiële succes heeft de GGE zijn beperkingen. De deelnemers zijn technisch gesproken eerder adviseurs van de Secretaris-Generaal van de VN dan volledig bevoegde nationale onderhandelaars. Hoewel het aantal deelnemers is gestegen van de oorspronkelijke 15 naar 25 hebben de meeste landen geen stem.

Maar er gaat een grotere vraag schuil achter de GGE: Kunnen normen werkelijk het gedrag van staten beperken?

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