Pound Euro Banking Ian Waldie/Getty Images

Un monde sans réglementation bancaire ?

LONDRES – La crise financière mondiale de 2008 a propulsé sur le devant de la scène le Comité de Bâle qui fixe les normes financières et décide de la réglementation bancaire internationale. Il a soudain fait les grands titres de la presse financière ; lors des dîners en ville à Manhattan et à Kensington, on ne discutait plus que des subtilités des Accords de Bâle II et de tout le mal que l'on peut penser de leurs exigences en matière de fonds propres procycliques.

Pour éviter qu'une crise bancaire nationale ne s'étende par-delà les frontières, à l'image d'une épidémie de grippe, nombre de pays voulaient une réglementation internationale plus stricte. Cela ainsi que lors du sommet du G20 de Londres en avril 2009 a été décidée la création du Conseil de stabilité financière (une mise au goût du jour de l'ancien Forum de stabilité financière) et la participation de représentants de tous les pays du Groupe aux principales instances responsables de la réglementation, que ce soit à Bâle ou ailleurs. L'élargissement du G7 au G20 laissait espérer la prise en compte d'un plus grand nombre de pays et un soutien politique plus important en faveur de l'augmentation des fonds propres du système bancaire.

Cela a réussi… jusqu'à un certain point. Ainsi les Accords de Bâle III ont plus que doublé les exigences en capitaux propres et fixé des critères de qualité plus élevés pour ces derniers. Néanmoins, alors qu'ils sont supposés améliorer la fiabilité du système, apparaissent maintenant les signes d'une baisse dangereuse des exigences en matière de réglementation internationale - en fait à l'égard de toute réglementation commune.

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