食品还是石油?

当联合国秘书长潘基文最近访问南极洲时,他被他在那儿看到的不断融化的冰层震撼了。然后他来到了巴西,在那里他对这个国家四分之一的汽车交通使用的都是生物燃料留下了深刻的印象。从油菜籽里榨出来的油可以被用作柴油,而从玉米或甜菜中可以出产乙醇以替代汽油。

联合国和许多国家的官方观点都认为生物燃料是对抗气候变化的一个选择。美国给从玉米中生产乙醇提供巨额的补贴,这使该国的产量现在每年以12%的速度增长,而全世界的年增长幅度大约为10%。欧盟国家2006年给生物燃料的生产补贴了37亿欧元,并且计划到2015年它们机动车燃料的8%将由生物资源提供,2020年达到20%。《京都议定书》允许各国通过用生物燃料替代矿物燃料来达到它们二氧化碳减排的目标。

但是将食品烧掉而不是吃掉真的是一个明智并且道义上可接受的策略吗?如果我们允许将食品用于生产生物燃料,那么食品的价格就会与石油价格挂钩,正如德国农民协会的主席高兴地宣布的那样。事实上,目前欧洲的食品价格正在节节攀升,因为越来越多的耕地被用来生产生物燃料而不是生产食品。

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