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La Dernière chance de l’Europe

BERLIN – L’histoire de l’Europe a pour l’essentiel été marquée par des conflits. L’historien américain Robert Kagan écrivait en 2003 que « les Américains viennent de Mars et les Européens de Vénus », mais l’Europe, pendant des siècles, fut non pas la patrie de la déesse romaine de l’Amour, mais bien du dieu de la Guerre.

Ce n’est qu’après la Seconde Guerre mondiale que Vénus élut domicile en Europe, tandis qu’émergeaient nombre d’institutions d’une gouvernance globale, dont les Nations unies, la Banque mondiale et le système monétaire de Bretton Woods. Durant la guerre froide, les pays européens abandonnèrent pratiquement leur souveraineté aux deux nouvelles superpuissances, les États-Unis et l’Union soviétique.

Plus tard, le contrôle partagé des deux rivaux se relâcha, et le vieux système des États européens fut remplacé par l’Union européenne, avec sa promesse de paix éternelle entre les États membres et, plus largement, entre l’Europe et le monde. L’effondrement du communisme en Europe, suivi par celui de l’Union soviétique en 1991, fut triomphalement qualifié, en Europe et aux États-Unis, de « fin de l’histoire » – une victoire mondiale de la démocratie libérale et de l’économie de marché capitaliste.

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