UK Manufacturing Matt Cardy/Stringer

El retorno de la estrategia industrial

LONDRES – La política industrial se está poniendo de moda nuevamente en muchas economías avanzadas. Desestimada en los dinámicos 1980 por considerársela un factor que contribuyó al estancamiento de la década previa, cada vez más se la ve como un medio para frenar la deserción de los votantes de la clase trabajadora hacia partidos populistas de derecha. Pero desarrollar una estrategia industrial efectiva no será tarea sencilla.

La Unión Europea ha intentado definir un marco consistente para abordar este tema desde 2014, cuando publicó un análisis de las ventajas y desventajas de la política industrial. El Reino Unido está más avanzado, al haber difundido en enero un documento sobre la creación de una estrategia industrial. El presidente de Estados Unidos, Donald Trump, también se centró en la política industrial, aunque su versión supuestamente conllevaría una intervención estatal sustancial y medidas proteccionistas.

La visión regresiva de Trump, a pesar de no abundar en detalles, ya parece defectuosa. Pero las posturas de Europa frente a la estrategia industrial son bastante alentadoras, sobre todo porque probablemente eviten las amplias intervenciones del pasado que hacían hincapié en la "elección de ganadores". En el Reino Unido, por ejemplo, el gobierno espera centrarse en cambio en "intervenciones específicas" destinadas a crear incentivos positivos, corregir errores de mercado y abordar los desequilibrios sociales, geográficos y sectoriales. Claramente, los líderes políticos han aprendido algunas lecciones importantes de la historia.

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