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牛津—在现代社会管理精英中,只有经济学家有诺贝尔奖可得,刚刚宣布的最新获奖者是奥利佛·哈特(Oliver Hart)和班特·霍尔斯特罗姆(Bengt Holmström)。不管经济学家获得如此独特地位的原因何在,诺贝尔奖光环可以也确实常常让有害于公共利益——比如推动不平等和增加造成金融危机的可能性——的政策获得信誉。


标准经济学假设社会由自利个体组成,他们在市场中交易,他们的选择通过“看不见的手”放大成一种效率状态(efficient state)。但这一信条在理论和实践中都不太稳固:其前提条件并不现实,其所支持的模式自相矛盾,其产生的预测常常出错。

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