venezuela line for food Federico Parra/Stringer

经济民粹主义是如何运作的?

圣地亚哥——现在民粹主义者正在西方掌权,同时在酝酿的还有相关策略的知识产权冲突。像约翰·朱迪斯这样的作家十九世纪美国人发明了政治民粹主义,其特点是反精英立场和煽动性言论。诞生过超级民粹主义者胡安·多明戈·庇隆的阿根廷和热图利奥·瓦加斯的巴西或许对此不敢苟同。

但没人不赞成拉美人是经济民粹主义最出色、也最长期的奉行者。20世纪,庇隆和瓦加斯,再加上秘鲁的阿兰·加西亚(至少在他的首个任期)、尼加拉瓜的丹尼尔·奥尔特加以及智利的萨尔瓦多·阿连德,还有其他很多人都奉行贸易保护主义,从而催生大量预算赤字,导致经济过热,容忍通胀上升并最终引发了目前的货币危机。近年来,委内瑞拉的乌戈·查韦斯和尼古拉斯·马杜罗将上述政策引向了新低。

正在陷入国内经济民粹主义的富裕世界应当从拉美经历中吸取哪些教训?

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