Born2_Zhang Peng_LightRocket via Getty Images Zhang Peng/LightRocket via Getty Images

解决假消息难题

加利福尼亚州门洛帕克——自从2016年11月举行的美国总统大选凸显出数字渠道面对假消息是多么脆弱无助以来,关于如何打击“假消息”的辩论就从未停止过。自从脸书、谷歌和推特高管出席国会听证会就俄罗斯消息来源如何利用其平台来影响选举结果回答质疑以来,我们已经在短短八个月内取得了很大的成果。不过假如说在搜寻解决之道的漫长过程中有一个问题已经明确,那就是能解决一切问题的良方是根本不存在的。

我们需要的不是用一招解决所有问题,而是从不同角度解决问题的循序渐进的方法。现代信息生态系统就像一个魔方,要想把每个方块移动“到位”需要采取循序渐进的步骤。在涉及数字虚假消息时,至少需要思考四个维度的因素。

首先,在分享虚假信息?从法律和惯用模式的层面,尤其是在对言论自由保护无与伦比和制裁国外干预相对严格的美国,比起由本国民众参与宣传的虚假消息,对待由外国主体参与传播的假消息的处理方式可能会截然不同。

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