says that Russia's use of cyber technology for information warfare is disruptive, not attractive. Kirill Kudryavtsev/Getty Images

Guerra de la información y poder blando

CAMBRIDGE – La interferencia de Rusia en la elección presidencial estadounidense en 2016 y su presunta intrusión en servidores de la campaña del presidente francés Emmanuel Macron no deberían sorprender a nadie, dada la idea (errada) que tiene el presidente Vladimir Putin de lo que es el poder blando. Antes de ser reelegido en 2012, Putin dijo a un periódico moscovita que “el poder blando es un conjunto de herramientas y métodos cuyo fin es alcanzar metas de política exterior sin uso de la fuerza, por medio de la información y otros mecanismos de influencia”.

En la perspectiva del Kremlin, las revoluciones de colores en los países vecinos y los levantamientos de la Primavera Árabe fueron ejemplos de uso del poder blando por parte de Estados Unidos como nueva forma de guerra híbrida. La idea de poder blando se incorporó al documento “Concepto de la Política Exterior de Rusia 2013”, y en marzo de 2016, el jefe del Estado Mayor ruso, Valery Gerasimov, declaró que responder a amenazas externas de esa clase “con tropas convencionales es imposible; sólo pueden contrarrestarse con los mismos métodos híbridos”.

¿Qué es el poder blando? Algunos piensan que se refiere a cualquier tipo de acción que no sea la fuerza militar, pero no es así. El poder blando es la capacidad de obtener lo que uno desea por medio de la atracción y la persuasión en vez de amenazas de coerción u ofertas de pago.

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