says that Russia's use of cyber technology for information warfare is disruptive, not attractive. Kirill Kudryavtsev/Getty Images

Informationskrieg versus Soft Power

CAMBRIDGE – Russlands Einmischung in die US-Präsidentschaftswahl 2016 und seine mutmaßlichen Hacker-Angriffe auf die Wahlkampfserver des französischen Präsidenten Emmanuel Macron dürften angesichts von Präsident Wladimir Putins (Miss-)Verständnis von Soft Power niemanden überraschen. Vor seiner Wiederwahl 2012 erklärte Putin gegenüber einer Moskauer Zeitung: „Soft Power ist ein Komplex aus Instrumenten und Methoden zum Erreichen außenpolitischer Ziele ohne Anwendung von Gewalt, durch Information und andere Möglichkeiten der Einflussnahme.“

Aus der Perspektive des Kremls waren die farbigen Revolutionen in benachbarten Ländern und der Arabische Frühling Beispiele für den Einsatz von Soft Power als neue Form der hybriden Kriegsführung durch die Vereinigten Staaten. 2013 ist das Konzept der Soft Power in das außenpolitische Konzept Russlands aufgenommen worden, und im März 2016 erklärte der russische Generalstabschef Waleri Gerasimow, dass es „unmöglich ist, mit konventionellen Streitkräften“ auf externe Bedrohungen dieser Art zu reagieren, „denen man nur mit den gleichen hybriden Methoden etwas entgegensetzen kann“.

Was ist Soft Power? Einige denken, damit seien alle Aktionen mit Ausnahme von militärischen gemeint, aber das ist falsch. Soft Power ist die Fähigkeit, das, was man will, durch Anziehungs- und Überzeugungskraft zu erreichen, und nicht durch Androhung von Zwang oder wirtschaftliche Anreize.

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