Здравый подход к поставкам сырья из зон конфликтов

ЛОНДОН – «Алмаз на твоем пальце, скажи, как стал твоим он?», – спрашивает шекспировский король Цимбелин. «Ты бы пытал меня, – отвечает подлый Якимо, – чтоб то несказанным осталось, произнесенное ж тебя будет пытать». В глобальной торговле природными ресурсами сегодня есть такие сюжеты (рассказанные и нет), которые могут причинить не меньше страданий.

Добыча природных ресурсов должны быть главным двигателем развития в тех странах, которые в нем особенно нуждаются. Однако в самых бедных и самых слабых государствах она приводит к противоположным результатам. Во многих подобных странах торговля природными ресурсами способствует конфликтам и вопиющим нарушениям прав человека, оплачивает эти конфликты и затягивает их. Такие ресурсы, как алмазы, золото, вольфрам, тантал, олово, нелегально добываются, экспортируются и облагаются поборами вооруженными группировками, они дают дополнительный внебюджетный доход коррумпированным военным, а также службам безопасности.

Посмотрите только на четыре африканские страны – Судан, Южный Судан, Центральноафриканскую республику (ЦАР) и Демократическую республику Конго (ДРК). На эти богатые ресурсами страны приходится лишь 13% населения региона Африки южнее Сахары и около 55% всех беженцев, так называемых внутренне перемещенных лиц, в регионе (это каждый пятый беженец в мире). Причина – в конфликтах. Данная проблема является глобальной: такое же положение мы видим в некоторых областях Колумбии, Мьянмы, Афганистана.

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