putin medvedev Mikhail Svetlov/Getty Images

El hábito de la Guerra Fría de Rusia

MOSCÚ – Hace unas semanas, Mijail Gorbachov -el último líder de la Unión Soviética y el hombre que hizo más que cualquier otro por poner fin a la Guerra Fría- le dijo al diario alemán Bild que es posible "reconocer todas las características de una nueva guerra fría en el mundo de hoy". Estados Unidos "ya ha arrastrado" a Rusia a este escenario, dijo Gorbachov, en un esfuerzo por "concretar su idea triunfalista general".

Ahora bien, ¿el actual antagonismo entre Estados Unidos y Rusia es realmente "nuevo"? ¿Y es creíble responsabilizar de manera categórica a Estados Unidos, como tienden a hacer Gorbachov y ciertamente el Kremlin? Para responder estas preguntas, debemos analizar la historia -empezando mucho antes del "Discurso de la Cortina de Hierro" de Winston Churchill en 1946.

Por cierto, la relación conflictiva entre Rusia y Occidente comenzó un siglo antes de la Guerra Fría. Allá por los años 1820, Rusia se erigió no sólo como el principal vencedor en las guerras napoleónicas, sino también como la fuerza más conservadora -o, más precisamente, reaccionaria- en Europa. Bajo el régimen de los zares Alejandro I y Nicolás I, siempre estuvo dispuesta a oponerse a cualquier señal de renovación de la "plaga revolucionaria" que infectaba a las monarquías del continente.

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