Cumprir a promessa de financiar a luta contra as alterações climáticas

LONDRES – Em 2009, os países ricos do mundo comprometeram-se a mobilizar 100 mil milhões de dólares por ano até 2020 para ajudar os países pobres a combater as alterações climáticas. Desde então, essa promessa tem vindo a ser considerada como um teste-chave da determinação do mundo desenvolvido em assumir a sua responsabilidade na luta contra o aquecimento global.

Alcançar a meta de 100 mil milhões de dólares é importante. Os países pobres têm de acreditar que os países ricos honrarão as suas promessas. Caso contrário, as perspectivas de um acordo internacional eficaz na conferência das Nações Unidas sobre as alterações climáticas a realizar em Paris, em Novembro e Dezembro, poderão estar em risco.

Felizmente há indícios encorajadores de que a promessa poderá ser cumprida. Porém, é necessário aumentar os fluxos financeiros, em particular por parte do sector privado. De acordo com a OCDE e a Iniciativa de Política Climática, os países desenvolvidos mobilizaram, no seu conjunto, 52,2 mil milhões de dólares em 2013 e 61,8 mil milhões de dólares em 2014 para ajudar os países pobres a reduzir as emissões de gases com efeito estufa e a combater as consequências das alterações climáticas que já não podem ser evitadas.

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