Miner Daniel Mihailescu | Getty Images

Masa Depan Selepas Metrik Karbon

BERLIN – Selama 10 tahun terakhir, istilah “perubahan iklim” (climate change) hampir dianggap sama maknanya dengan “emisi karbon” (carbon emissions). Penurunan gas-gas rumah kaca di atmosfer yang diukur dalam satuan ton “karbon ekuivalen” atau CO2e (carbon equivalents) muncul sebagai target utama dalam perjalanan menuju perlindungan planet bumi. Tapi pendekatan simplistic ini tidak mungkin bisa memecahkan krisis-krisis ekologis yang sedemikian rumit dan saling berkaitan yang kita hadapi sekarang.

Kebijakan global mengenai lingkungan hidup dengan fokus tunggal hanya pada “metrik karbon” (carbon metrics) mencerminkan obsesi pada penghitungan, ukuran, dan akuntansi. Dunia ini berjalan berdasarkan beragam satuan ukuran – kalori, kilometer, kilogram, dan kini satuan ton CO2e – yang berkesan objektif dan dapat diandalkan, terutama ketika diutarakan dalam bahasa “ahli” (biasanya ekonomi). Akibatnya, kita cenderung mengabaikan konsekuensi sejarah masing-masing satuan ukuran tersebut serta dinamika kekuasaan dan politik yang terus membentuknya.

Salah satu contoh utama satuan ukuran berlaku global yang berpengaruh dan agak menipu adalah produk domestik bruto (PDB), yang digunakan untuk mengukur pertumbuhan ekonomi dan pembangunan negara setelah Perang Dunia II, ketika negara-negara adidaya merancang lembaga keuangan internasional yang seharusnya mencerminkan kekuatan ekonomi. Akan tetapi sekarang PDB menjadi sumber frustrasi yang meluas sebab indikator ini gagal menggambarkan realitas kehidupan masyarakat. Ibarat lampu jauh pada mobil, satuan ukuran ini bisa menerangi tapi bisa juga membuat hal-hal di luar itu tidak kelihatan.

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