Harvest market for poor people in NYC Neville Elder/Getty Images

包容性增长依靠城市

巴黎、华盛顿—我们生活在动荡时代,群众对现状的不满与日俱增。群众不满的原因各个国家各不相同,但有一个共同线索是越来越多的人感到经济被操纵以满足一小撮人的利益。

事实上,经济增长的收益越来越多地流向最高薪群体。在经合组织国家中,收入分布最顶层10%人群要比最底层10%多赚十倍——近30年前只有七倍。2012年,在有可比数据的18个经合组织国家中,最顶层10%拥有50%的家庭总财富,而最底层40%只拥有3%。

当不平等性达到新高度时,我们所有人都要付出代价。在一些经合组织国家,1990—2010年间不平等性加剧造成6—10个百分点的总GDP损失。当最贫困人群无法充分实现潜能时,经济增长就会受到影响。

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