Chinese trade STR/Getty Images

Китайская вепонизация торговли

НЬЮ-ДЕЛИ – Китай отрицает смешение бизнеса с политикой, тем не менее он уже давно использует торговлю в целях наказания стран, которые отказываются придерживаться его линии. Недавнее наложение жестких экономических санкций со стороны Китая на Южную Корею, в ответ на решение страны развернуть противоракетную систему THAAD, стало лишь последним примером использования китайскими властями торговли в качестве политического оружия.

Правительство Китая поощряло, а затем эксплуатировало экономическую зависимость государств от него, чтобы заручиться их поддержкой для своих внешнеполитических целей. Его экономические наказания варьируются от ограничения импорта или неофициального бойкотирования товаров из целевой страны до прекращения стратегического экспорта (например, редкоземельных минералов) и поощрения внутренних протестов против конкретных иностранных предприятий. Другие инструменты включают приостановление туристических поездок и блокировку доступа к рыбопромысловым районам. Все они применяются с осторожностью, чтобы избежать сбоев, которые могли бы нанести ущерб собственным деловым интересам Китая.

Монголия стала классическим примером такого геоэкономического принуждения, после того, как в ноябре прошлого года она приняла у себя Далай Ламу. Принимая во внимание, что на долю Китая приходится 90% экспорта Монголии, власти Китая решили преподать Монголии урок. После введения штрафных сборов на экспорт их сырьевых товаров, Министр иностранных дел Китая Ван Йи выразил “надежду на то, что Монголия сделает выводы из данного урока”, и что она “скрупулезно выполнит свое обещание”, не приглашать больше Тибетского духовного лидера.

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