Cannabis a mozek

Evropu i Ameriku zachvátila mocná vlna diskusí o legalizaci marihuany pro osobní potřebu. Británie už vlastně prakticky používání marihuany dekriminalizovala. Jsem neuroložka a tato diskuse mě tudíž velice zajímá.

Jeden z často citovaných argumentů pro legalizaci či dekriminalizaci marihuany se týká skutečnosti, že zde chybí oběť. Přitom ale nejméně čtyři zprávy publikované ve významných lékařských časopisech (Ramstrom, 1998; Moskowitz, 1985; Chesher, 1995 a Ashton, 2001) potvrzují opak. Ve studii pilotů kouřících jen jednu běžně velkou cigaretu byl rozdíl mezi kontrolní skupinou, která požívala placebo, a skupinou, která kouřila cannabis, rozdíl až 50 hodin po požití drogy. K dalším přítěžím pro společnost jsou nehody doma či v práci, dosažení nedostatečného vzdělání, zhoršený výkon v zaměstnání a zvýšené náklady na zdravotní péči.

Dalším argumentem pro zmírnění našeho přístupu ke cannabis je, že tato látka není návyková. Definovat "návyk" či "návykovost" je samozřejmě složité, ale pokud je hodnotíme jako schopnost či neschopnost vzdát se návyku, existuje mnoho důkazů, že cannabis vyvolává závislost. Podle nedávných studií dnes mnoho amerických, britských i novozélandských uživatelů této drogy vyhledává léčbu ze své závislosti. Další studie dokládají, že deset procent uživatelů chce přestat nebo svou spotřebu omezit, ale nedokáže to, a další referát z roku 1998 uvádí, že závislými se stává 10 až 15 procent uživatelů.

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