Los senderos hacia una energía sustentable

NUEVA YORK – La apuesta más segura sobre el futuro de la energía es la necesidad de suministros energéticos reducidos en carbono. Aproximadamente el 80% de la energía primaria del mundo hoy está basado en el carbono: carbón, petróleo y gas. Vamos a necesitar pasar a energía sin carbono o baja en carbono para mediados de siglo. Los grandes interrogantes son cómo y cuándo.

La energía primaria con bajo contenido de carbono implica tres opciones: energía renovable, que incluye energía eólica, solar, geotermal, hidráulica y biomasa; energía nuclear, y captura y almacenamiento de carbono, que significa utilizar combustibles fósiles para crear energía, atrapando a la vez las emisiones de CO2 que resultan y guardando el carbono de manera segura bajo tierra.

Existen tres razones imperiosas para que el mundo adopte una energía reducida en carbono. Primero, los niveles más elevados de CO2 están acidificando los océanos. Si seguimos haciendo las cosas como hasta ahora, terminaremos destruyendo una enorme cantidad de vida marina, dañando seriamente las cadenas alimenticias de las que dependemos.

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