Un trato justo sobre el cambio climático

El acuerdo sobre cambio climático que sellaron los líderes del G8 en Heiligendamm apenas prepara el terreno para el verdadero debate por venir: ¿cómo dividiremos la decreciente capacidad de la atmósfera para absorber nuestros gases de tipo invernadero?

Los líderes del G8 acordaron velar por recortes “sustanciales” en las emisiones de gases de tipo invernadero y prestarle una “seria consideración” al objetivo de reducir en la mitad este tipo de emisiones para 2050 –un resultado aclamado como un triunfo de la canciller alemana Angela Merkel y del primer ministro británico Tony Blair-. Sin embargo, el acuerdo no compromete a nadie a metas específicas, mucho menos a Estados Unidos, cuyo presidente, George W. Bush, que ya no estará en el cargo en 2009, cuando se tengan que tomar las decisiones difíciles.

Uno razonablemente podría preguntar por qué se cree que un acuerdo tan vago representa algún tipo de progreso. En la Conferencia de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Medio Ambiente y el Desarrollo en Río de Janeiro en 1992, 189 países, entre ellos Estados Unidos, China, India y todas las naciones europeas, firmaron la Convención Marco de las Naciones Unidas sobre el Cambio Climático, aceptando así estabilizar los gases de tipo invernadero “en un nivel lo suficientemente bajo como para impedir una peligrosa interferencia antropogénica con el sistema climático”.

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