Vehicles of Japan's auto giant Nissan Motor are ready to ship abroad before a cargo ship YOSHIKAZU TSUNO/AFP/Getty Images

我们为什么需要全球化

发自东京——从英国脱欧公投到特朗普当选美国总统,再到德国和意大利等国民粹主义政党的崛起,近年来西方民主国家的选举变局至少有一部分出自于对全球化的逆反。但选民宣泄愤怒的目标本不应是全球化。

无可否认,全球化可能会使贸易经济体内的特定群体境况变糟。那些身处易受国外劳动者竞争影响行业的人尤其脆弱。移民增加了愿意接受较低工资的劳动者数量,有效拉低了本地工人(尤其是那些低技能工作岗位)的工资。而离岸外包则让企业能够将制造业务转移到拥有大量低成本劳动力的国家。

但总体来说,实施包括自由贸易以及至少一定规模开放移民的全球化意愿是强烈的,因为它增加了各个参与国的财富总额。削弱其负面影响所需的唯一做法就是有效的再分配政策,包括强有力的社会安全网。
然而这种补偿性政策却极少被采用,导致那些被抛弃的群体变得日益挫败。然后一批善于利用这类挫败感的政治家纷纷涌现,开始鼓吹一些与真实需要背道而驰的政策。这种趋势最为明显——或者后果最为严重——之处莫过于美国,为了安抚其选举基础中的某些群体,特朗普政府甚至不惜挑起与中国的贸易战,

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