On feint de résoudre les problèmes de la planète!

NEW YORK – La politique mondiale d’aujourd’hui a ceci de bizarre et d’inquiétant qu’elle porte à confondre processus d’adhésion à des mesures et mise en œuvre de ces mesures. Selon l’échéance convenue en décembre 2007, il nous reste six mois pour parvenir à un accord global sur le changement climatique à Copenhague. Les Etats mènent d’énormes négociations, mais pas l’ombre d’une action. Chaque pays se demande, “Comment en faire le minimum, et en laisser le maximum aux autres?,” alors qu’ils devraient se demander, “Comment contribuer à faire progresser nos objectifs communs au meilleur coût-efficacité?”

Ces questions se ressemblent peut-être, mais elles sont différentes. Lutter contre le changement climatique suppose de réduire les émissions de dioxyde de carbone des combustibles fossiles, ce qui implique de choisir des technologies, qui sont, pour certaines, déjà là, mais qui, pour beaucoup, nécessitent d’être développées. Par exemple, les centrales thermiques alimentées au charbon doivent, pour être en mesure de continuer à représenter une large part de la palette énergétique, s’employer à capter les émissions de CO2 et à les stocker, selon une technique appelée “capture et séquestration du carbone,” ou CSC, qui reste encore à mettre au point.

Il nous faut également regagner la confiance de la population dans le développement d’une énergie nucléaire “nouvelle génération,” avec des centrales fiables et bien surveillées. Nous avons besoin de nouvelles technologies, pour domestiquer à grande échelle les énergies solaire, éolienne et géothermique. Nous avons la possibilité de recourir aux biocarburants, mais uniquement sous des formes ne nuisant pas à nos réserves de nourriture ou à des atouts environnementaux précieux.

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