Война и окружающая Среда

Озабоченность по поводу последствий военных действий для окружающей среды возникла сразу после бомбардировок Хиросимы и Нагасаки в конце Второй Мировой Войны, когда никто еще не знал сколько времени будет сохраняться радиоактивное загрязнение и какие меры по очистке необходимо принять. Во время холодной войны экологические последствия ядерной конфронтации стали темой для прогнозов и спекуляций, нашедших свое выражение в концепции «ядерной зимы».

Не только ядерное оружие послужило причиной этих страхов. Использование желтых и оранжевых реагентов в качестве дефолиантов во время войны во Вьетнаме послужило поводом для ожесточенных дискуссий - и определенных расследований о химических и экологических последствиях использования этих химических веществ. До первой войны в Персидском заливе в 1991 году дискуссии касались возможного влияния войны на глобальный климат, если Ирак подожжет нефтяные месторождения в Кувейте, что в последствии стало главным представлениям об экологических последствиях войны.

С тех пор постоянно предпринимались попытки систематически исследовать и документально подтвердить экологические последствия военных действий. Такие международные организации как Экологическая Программа ООН начали проводить исследования по изучению войны на Балканах и множества других военных конфликтов, захлестнувших Афганистан в 90-ые годы. К сожалению, военные конфликты в Африке, такие как войны в Конго, Руанде, Бурунди, Ливии, Сьерра Леоне и на Берегу Слоновой Кости - не получили должного внимания.

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