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Вариации популизма

ЛОНДОН – Убедительная победа Эммануэля Макрона над Марин Ле Пен во втором туре президентских выборов во Франции стала крупным успехом для либеральной Европы. Но это была победа в сражении, не в войне. Сама идея, что каждый третий французский гражданин способен проголосовать за Национальный фронт Ле Пен, была немыслимой всего несколько лет назад.

Комментаторы закрепили за волной демагогической политики, охватившей Европу (и значительную часть остального мира), ярлык «популизма». Но помимо крикливого стиля, свойственного всем популистам, что в этих движениях общего? Испанская партия «Подемос» и греческая «Сириза» находятся на левом фланге. Французский Национальный фронт, голландская Партия свободы и немецкая «Альтернатива для Германии» (AfD) – на правом. Беппе Грилло, лидер итальянского «Движения пяти звёзд», говорит, что его движения не является ни левым, ни правым.

Тем не менее, у них у всех звучат общие темы: экономический национализм, социальная защита, антиевропейские настроения, антиглобализация, враждебность не просто политическому истеблишменту, но и политике вообще.

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