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Les différentes sortes d'expérience populiste

LONDRES – La victoire écrasante d'Emmanuel Macron sur Marine Le Pen au deuxième tour des élections présidentielles en France a été une grande victoire pour l'Europe libérale. Mais ce fut une bataille, pas une guerre. L'idée qu'un citoyen français sur trois ait voté pour le Front National de Le Pen aurait été inconcevable il y a seulement quelques années en arrière.

Les commentateurs ont attribué la mention « populiste » à la vague de politique démagogique qui traverse l'Europe (et le reste du monde). Mais au-delà du style tapageur partagé par les populistes, quel est donc le point commun de ces mouvements ? Après tout, les mouvements Podemos en Espagne et Syriza en Grèce sont de gauche. Le Front National en France, le Parti pour la Liberté aux Pays-Bas et Alternative für Deutschland (AfD) en Allemagne sont de droite. Beppe Grillo, le chef du mouvement Cinq Étoiles en Italie dit que son mouvement n'est ni de droite ni de gauche.

Ils partagent pourtant des thèmes communs : le nationalisme économique, la protection sociale, l'anti-européanisme, l'anti-mondialisation et une hostilité non seulement envers l'establishment politique, mais également à l'égard de la politique elle-même.

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