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أشكال من التجربة الشعبوية

لندن ــ كانت الهزيمة الساحقة التي أنزلها إيمانويل ماكرون بزعيمة الجبهة الوطنية اليمينية المتطرفة مارين لوبان في الجولة الثانية من انتخابات الرئاسة الفرنسية انتصارا كبيرا لأوروبا الليبرالية. ولكنها كانت معركة وليست حربا. فلم تكن فِكرة تصويت واحد من كل ثلاثة مواطنين فرنسيين لصالح مارين لوبان زعيمة الجبهة الوطنية واردة قبل بضع سنوات.

ربط المعلقون وصف "الشعبوية" بموجة من السياسات الغوغائية التي تجتاح أوروبا (وقسم كبير من بقية العالَم). ولكن ما هي القواسم المشتركة بين مثل هذه الحركات، بعيدا عن الأسلوب الصاخب الفظ الشائع بين الشعبويين؟ ينتمي حزب بوديموس في أسبانيا وحزب سيريزا في اليونان إلى اليسار. وينتمي حزب الجبهة الوطنية في فرنسا، وحزب من أجل الحرية في هولندا، وحزب البديل من أجل ألمانيا في ألمانيا، إلى اليمين. ويقول بيبي جريلو، زعيم حركة الخمسة نجوم في إيطاليا، إن الحركة ليست يسارية ولا يمينية.

ومع ذلك، هناك قواسم مشتركة تجمع بينهم جميعا: القومية الاقتصادية، والحماية الاجتماعية، ومناهضة أوروبا، ومناهضة العولمة، والعداء ليس فقط للمؤسسة السياسية بل وأيضا للسياسة ذاتها.

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