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What Next for the US Stock Market?

August 22 marked the longest period of rising share prices in US history. But the stock market's nine-year bull run won't last much longer, as three factors drive up long-term interest rates, reducing the present value of future corporate profits and providing investors with an alternative to equities.

CAMBRIDGE – The US stock market achieved its longest rise in its history on August 22, with the Standard and Poor’s 500 index up by 230% since 2009. Although this wasn’t the biggest increase in a bull market, it marked the longest period of increasing share prices.

Several forces contributed to this impressive nine-year run. The primary driver has been the extremely low interest rates maintained by the Federal Reserve. The Fed cut its short-term federal funds rate to near-zero in 2008 and did not begin to increase it above 1% until 2017. Even now, the federal funds rate is lower than the annual inflation rate. The Fed also promised to keep the short rate low for a long period of time, causing long-term rates to remain low as well. With interest rates so low for so long, investors seeking higher returns bought shares, driving up their prices.

A rational model of share prices sets them equal to the present value of future profits. Low interest rates raised the present value of future profits, and the corporate tax reform enacted at the end of 2017, together with deregulation in several industries, has raised both current profits and expected future profits, contributing to the present value of future profits.

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