Die Urbanisierung Chinas

PEKING – Gemessen an dem Prozentsatz der Menschen, die in Städten leben, beträgt Chinas Urbanisierungsrate laut offizieller Statistik momentan etwa 48 Prozent. Das ist ein bemerkenswerter Fortschritt, wenn man bedenkt, dass dieser Wert vor nur 30 Jahren bei 18 Prozent lag.

Allerdings ist der aktuelle Wert noch immer nicht zufrieden stellend, denn in den meisten anderen Ländern in einem ähnlichen Entwicklungsstadium verläuft die Urbanisierung rascher als die Industrialisierung. Chinas Urbanisierung hinkt der Industrialisierung hinterher. Diese beträgt, gemessen an der Prozentzahl der Arbeitskräfte, deren Einkommen hauptsächlich aus nicht-landwirtschaftlichen Aktivitäten stammt, gegenwärtig etwa 70 Prozent.

Ein weiterer auffälliger Unterschied zwischen China und einigen anderen Entwicklungsländern besteht darin, dass es in chinesischen Städten – ob groß oder klein – keine nennenswerten Armenviertel oder Slums gibt. Diesen Umstand schreibt man vielfach dem chinesischen Hukou oder Haushaltsregistrierungssystem zu, das die privilegierte städtische von der armen ländlichen Bevölkerung von Geburt an trennt. Aber obwohl den Menschen auf dem Land durch das Hukou-System vielleicht einige den Städtern vorbehaltene Vorteile und öffentliche Leistungen wie Bildungseinrichtungen und Gesundheitsversorgung oder Arbeitnehmerversicherung versagt bleiben, wurden Arbeitskräfte vom Land dadurch nie abgehalten, in die Städte zu ziehen.  

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